Acetyl-BMAL1 (K538) Polyclonal Antibody, 100ug, (ATB-K0041)

$299.00

Description

Background:

The protein encoded by this gene is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that forms a heterodimer with CLOCK. This heterodimer binds E-box enhancer elements upstream of Period (PER1, PER2, PER3) and Cryptochrome (CRY1, CRY2) genes and activates transcription of these genes. PER and CRY proteins heterodimerize and repress their own transcription by interacting in a feedback loop with CLOCK/ARNTL complexes. Defects in this gene have been linked to infertility, problems with gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, and altered sleep patterns. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

Transcriptional activator which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots ‘circa’ (about) and ‘diem’ (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for ‘timegivers’). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndromes and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5′-CACGTG-3′) within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1/2 and RORA/B/G, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. ARNTL/BMAL1 positively regulates myogenesis and negatively regulates adipogenesis via the transcriptional control of the genes of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Plays a role in normal pancreatic beta-cell function; regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via the regulation of antioxidant genes NFE2L2/NRF2 and its targets SESN2, PRDX3, CCLC and CCLM. Negatively regulates the mTORC1 signaling pathway; regulates the expression of MTOR and DEPTOR. Controls diurnal oscillations of Ly6C inflammatory monocytes; rhythmic recruitment of the PRC2 complex imparts diurnal variation to chemokine expression that is necessary to sustain Ly6C monocyte rhythms. Regulates the expression of HSD3B2, STAR, PTGS2, CYP11A1, CYP19A1 and LHCGR in the ovary and also the genes involved in hair growth. Plays an important role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis by regulating the timely entry of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) into the cell cycle and the number of cell divisions that take place prior to cell-cycle exit. Regulates the circadian expression of CIART and KLF11. The CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer regulates the circadian expression of SERPINE1/PAI1, VWF, B3, CCRN4L/NOC, NAMPT, DBP, MYOD1, PPARGC1A, PPARGC1B, SIRT1, GYS2, F7, NGFR, GNRHR, BHLHE40/DEC1, ATF4, MTA1, KLF10 and also genes implicated in glucose and lipid metabolism. Represses glucocorticoid receptor NR3C1/GR-induced transcriptional activity by reducing the association of NR3C1/GR to glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) via the acetylation of multiple lysine residues located in its hinge region. Promotes rhythmic chromatin opening, regulating the DNA accessibility of other transcription factors. The NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer positively regulates the expression of MAOA, F7 and LDHA and modulates the circadian rhythm of daytime contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of adenylate cyclase type 1 (ADCY1) in the retina.

Product datasheet:

Overview

Product Description   Acetyl-BMAL1 (K538) Polyclonal Antibody, 100ug, (ATB-K0041)
Image
Species Reactivities Human, Mouse, Rat
Immunogen Synthesized peptide derived from human BMAL1 around the acetylation site of K538.

Properties

Form Liquid in PBS containing 50% glycerol, 0.5% BSA and 0.02% sodium azide.
Storage Instructions -20°C/1 year
Isotype IGg

References:

  1. Overexpression of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 increases sensitivity to oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer. Zeng ZL, et al. Clin Cancer Res, 2014 Feb 15. PMID 24277452
  2. DNA methylation of the BMAL1 promoter. Satou R, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2013 Oct 25. PMID 24103761
  3. Bmal1 suppresses cancer cell invasion by blocking the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-MMP-2 signaling pathway. Jung CH, et al. Oncol Rep, 2013 Jun. PMID 23563360 Free PMC Article
  4. O-GlcNAcylation of BMAL1 regulates circadian rhythms in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Ma YT, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2013 Feb 15. PMID 23337503
  5. The major circadian pacemaker ARNT-like protein-1 (BMAL1) is associated with susceptibility to gestational diabetes mellitus. Pappa KI, et al. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2013 Feb. PMID 23206673
  6. cDNA cloning and tissue-specific expression of a novel basic helix-loop-helix/PAS protein (BMAL1) and identification of alternatively spliced variants with alternative translation initiation site usage.
    Ikeda M., Nomura M.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 233:258-264(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA / MRNA], ALTERNATIVE SPLICING (ISOFORMS BMAL1A; BMAL1B; BMAL1C; BMAL1D; BMAL1E AND BMAL1F). Tissue: Brain.
  7. Characterization of a subset of the basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS superfamily that interacts with components of the dioxin signaling pathway.
    Hogenesch J.B., Chan W.K., Jackiw V.H., Brown R.C., Gu Y.-Z., Pray-Grant M., Perdew G.H., Bradfield C.A.
    J. Biol. Chem. 272:8581-8593(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM MOP3), INTERACTION WITH HSP90 AND AHR. Tissue: Fetal brain.
  8. JAP3: a novel ARNT-like bHLH-PAS protein.
    Tian H., Russell D.W., McKnight S.L.
    Submitted (DEC-1996) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databasesCited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM BMAL1B).
  9. The basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS orphan MOP3 forms transcriptionally active complexes with circadian and hypoxia factors.
    Hogenesch J.B., Gu Y.Z., Jain S., Bradfield C.A.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95:5474-5479(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM BMAL1B).
  10. Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS BMAL1B AND 9). Tissue: Brain.

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